Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The altitude of the Old City is approximately 760 metres (2,500 ft).The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds, although those to the north are less pronounced than those on the other sides.

Three of the most prominent valleys in the region, the
Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys, intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem. The Kidron Valley runs just to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in Biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or hell. A third valley commenced in the northwest near the present-day location of Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus. Today, this valley, the Tyropoeon Valley, is mostly hidden from view due to the amount of debris that has accumulated within the ravine over the past few millennia.
Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi) east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis
and Ma'ale Adummim to the east, Maoz Zion, Motza and Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv'at Ze'ev to the north.

Israel has been in a political and sometimes military battle with its neighbors over its territory and very existence. The Gaza Strip on the Mediterranean coast was once part of Egypt. The West Band and East Jerusalem were part of Jordan. The Golan Heights is still in dispute with Syria.
To the south of the West Bank is the Negev desert. The Negev desert represents about 60% of Israel's territory.
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The geography of Jerusalem adds to the beauty and mystique of the Middle Eastern landscape.
Geography of Jerusalem; Jerusalem, (Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: Al Quds), one of the most ancient cities in the world and a holy city to Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
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"Jerusalem, all of gold; Jerusalem, bronze and light. Within my heart, I shall treasure your song and sight."

"Yerushalayim Shel Zahav" (Jerusalem of Gold) by Naomi Shemer
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Jerusalem's Geography Jerusalem is a city of mountains and valleys which greatly contributed to its history. There are four mountains that lie in a straight line, going from east to west. Starting in the east, they are the Mount of Olives, the Temple Mount also known as Mount Moriah, Mount Zion, also called the Upper Hill.
Israel is a small country in the middle east. The central plateau, called the West Bank, is the ancient Israel heartland containing Jerusalem. To the north are the Lebanese mountains.
Jerusalem Geography
Jerusalem Geography
Hinnom Valley

This valley formed the western boundary of the Upper City of Jesus? time; it began along the Western Hill and ended where the Tyropean and Kidron Valleys meet.
Just west of Jerusalem, this valley was at one time the city sewage dump, and the place where Judean kings sacrificed their children. The valley, with its filth, rottenness, and burning flesh, came to symbolize hell.
Kidron Valley
About three miles long, this deep wadi formed the eastern border of Jerusalem between David's city and the Mount of Olives.
During the reforms by Israel?s kings, idols and many other pagan objects were disposed of here. The spring of Gihon, the source of Hezekiah?s tunnel, and the garden of Gethsemane are in this valley.
Mount of Olives
This mountain, standing about 2,641 feet above sea level, stands east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. It is approximately 325 feet higher than the Temple area and the highest peak in the area.
Jesus entered Jerusalem, gave his final teaching, and ascended to heaven from here. Some scholars believe this may be the location for Jesus? return.
Tyropean Valley
This valley lay between David?s City and the Western Hill where the Upper City was located.
Hezekiah expanded the city into this valley. The Western Wall of Herod's Gentile Court was located here, as was the Pool of Siloam where Jesus sent a blind man to wash.
Western Hill
Once within the walls of ancient Jerusalem, the Western Hill was located at the southwest corner of the city.
It is very sacred to the Jewish people because it is the traditional spot of David?s tomb. The upper room where Jesus ate the last supper is found here as well.